The human Capital Boom in Africa Cities and What it Means


speculation has it that the high levels of un-employment in the African region for youths straight out of learning institutions has resulted in adverse deviation in economical projections. This deviation from the projections from top researchers and analysts have everyone watching in dis-belief. Currently is highlighting the plight of Asian slaves who have stayed in captivity for years. It has also been highlighting the plight of African immigrants die-ing on their way to europe via the Mediterranean.

As the RED CROSS put it, “There are hazards and disasters ” meaning, all natural occurring disasters are hazards while disasters are man made.

The combined GDP(Gross domestic product) of all the 54 African countries was at 1.6 Trillion dollars in 2008. If we were to put this figure in Zimbabwean currencies. we would not be doing so badly as the combined GDP would be highly inflated mirroring that the African economy is at the top of all the 7 continents.

Currently in Kenya, The recommended minimum wage is at 480 shillings per day. roughly translates to the figure below.


wage rate

With Malawi embracing the high levels of food security. Ethiopia embracing the same agri- policies. Kenya embracing health policies you might think that doctors are happy with their jobs. The argument of being filled with the abundance of food reduces the need to work. Though if one is healthy he will be ready to work. Though in this case, work where?

By Ben Onyango


Nice systems

Nice systems

For making apps smarter and more sympathetic. Inside an app, nobody can hear you scream—except the Israeli firm Nice Systems, whose customer-service solutions are used by 25,000 companies. Last year, it rolled out Mobile Reach, software that works in the background of banking, retail, and other apps, and jumps in to help a user the minute she’s frustrated. “Enterprises no longer simply pay lip service to customer service,” says Nice’s director of solutions marketing, Tamar Sharir. Its research finds that smartphone users fail to complete about 60% of transactions, and only 64% of them then call the company for help. Read more >>

water Gen

water Gen

For creating water where soldiers need it most. Troops can’t always transport water, but now they can transport a water maker. The Tel Aviv, Israel–based company Water-Gen has developed three machines: one that turns air moisture into drinking water, one that purifies the dribbles of air-conditioning units, and one that purifies any water source (such as a small stream), even if it’s been poisoned by an enemy. Last year, it made sales to seven countries’ militaries, including Israel, the United States, and an unnamed Arab state. The company’s revenue grew 50% last year, and it expects 300% growth in 2014. Read more >>



For helping consumers fight fraud in an increasingly hack-prone financial system. BillGuard estimates that U.S. credit card users are billed $14.3 billion annually in “gray” (unapproved) charges. Its free app alerts consumers to those hidden amounts—think “free” magazine orders rolling over to paid subscriptions. With a simple tap, users can notify the financial institution to remove the unwanted charge. BillGuard is clearly doing something right: Over the past two years, the app has helped consumers identify $60 million in gray charges.

For enabling self-driving cars to see better (and cheaper). While it may be less impressive than Google’s self-driving vehicles, Mobileye’s technology has helped pave the road to our robot-car future. Its EyeQ system, which uses components that cost only a few hundred dollars per product, has advanced image-sensing of lanes, traffic signs, vehicles, and pedestrians, and has been installed by 19 car manufacturers—including major companies like Volvo, GM, BMW, and Audi. Mobileye was on track to sell 1.5 million of its single-camera devices by the end of last year, and its own semiautonomous car is poised to hit roads commercially as early as 2016.

For silencing the noise of our lives. Silentium (meaning “silence” in Latin) has produced a chip and controller system that can be applied to a number of products to easily reduce noise pollution. Installed in systems for IT, HVAC for the residential and automobile markets, and medical equipment, Silentium’s solutions cut 90% of a device’s unwanted hums, whirrs, and clangs. With its new technology, Silentium aims to diminish stress and hearing impairment, and improve communication, work productivity, and health.



For crowdsourcing public-transit data to speed up commutes. By combining public-transportation data with users’ own accounts of their commute, Moovit provides its customers with the fastest, most comfortable routes. The free app offers rerouting options, information about which vehicles have available seats, and real-time snapshots of your trip. The company, which launched in 2012, already has 3 million users across more than 100 cities around the world, and raised $28 million in funding in December.



7. WIX
For letting small businesses drag-and-drop their way to a better website. More than 40 million people have used the website-building tools provided by the Tel Aviv, Israel–based startup Wix. The company provides free basic services to build HTML 5–based websites and charges for premium features, such as removing ads or adding e-commerce features. Wix mostly targets small businesses on lean budgets, allowing them to easily customize the site’s design and publish online instantaneously. Last fall, Wix went public and raised $127 million—the largest initial public offering in Israel in more than six years.

For connecting curious readers to the next best content. Outbrain provides companies with technology that helps their audiences discover more-relevant and personalized content, and increases page views. With hefty clients like CNN and The Guardian, Outbrain has managed to stave off the growing number of competitors in the content recommendation space: Last year, revenue was on track to hit $130 million, and the company raised $35 million more.

For safeguarding the data of companies around the world. As Earth’s climate—and cyberterrorism—grows more unpredictable, companies are searching for surefire methods to protect their data from disasters and outages. One way to do this is to replicate data at a secondary site, but in the event of a disaster, companies often find that the hardware doesn’t mesh. Zerto, which services clients like Dutch banking giant ING, provides a technology called Virtual Replication, which allows companies to copy all their data to any site, regardless of the server type. Last year was Zerto’s biggest yet: It recorded an astounding 200% revenue growth and quadrupled its customer base to more than 400.

For taking a step forward in untangling airport inefficiencies. SecureLogic’s software, iScreen, reduces peak waiting times at airports and other key installations through security-protocol engineering that requires fewer personnel and screening machines. (Its killer app is the ability to direct employees toward individuals and baggage that represent higher risk than others.) SecureLogic recently completed a successful pilot project at New York’s notoriously headache-inducing LaGuardia Airport.

courtesy FC.

Brad smith trip to Kenya


Brad Smith is Microsoft’s is the general counsel and executive vice president of Legal and Corporate Affairs (LCA). He leads approximately 1,200 legal, business and corporate affairs professionals spanning 55 countries and is responsible for the company’s legal work, its intellectual property portfolio, patent licensing business, and the company’s government affairs, public policy, corporate citizenship and philanthropic work. He also serves as Microsoft’s corporate secretary and its chief compliance officer. Smith joined Microsoft in 1993, and before becoming general counsel in 2002 he spent three years leading the LCA team in Europe, then five years serving as the deputy general counsel responsible for LCA’s teams outside the United States.

Smith grew up in Appleton, Wisconsin. He attended Princeton University, where he met his wife, Kathy (also a lawyer), and graduated summa cum laude with a concentration in international relations and economics.

He earned his J.D. from the Columbia University School of Law and studied international law and economics at the Graduate Institute of International Studies in Geneva, Switzerland. Prior to joining Microsoft he was an associate and then partner at the Washington, D.C.-based firm of Covington and Burling, where he is still remembered as the first attorney in the long history of the firm to insist (in 1986) on having a personal computer on his desk as a condition for accepting a job offer.

He is currently on tour in Kenya.



kenya airways dreamliner

kenya airways dreamliner

As from last week, the kenyan shilling and the East african economy has been going down compared to the united states dollar. This has caused inflation locally to some goods and service industries e.g food prices and travel fares. considering that the usd/Kes has been playing at around 85kes to 1 dollar for as long as we can remember since 2012 the recent rise to 96kes to 1 dollar has businesses increase prices tremendously.

One of the Google solve for x startups which seeks to make food affordable for africans in their video seem surprised by the price of food in the open air markets.

In economics, inflation is a sustained increase in the general price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time.

The solution lies in the efficiency of the stock market and the balancing of the import and export market. currently the number of imports greatly surpass the goods that Kenyan private and government businesses export to the foreign countries.

Looking at the travel industry the kenya airways( performance on the Nairobi stock exchangeor NSE has been on the decline. The CEO Linus Kaikai has maintained his stand that the company doesn’t need bailing out

Some industries like the agricultural industry are on the rise though, companies like sasini listed in the stock market, have made a big buck in the fall of the shilling against the dollar. kenchic are still around. the coffee prices are stable though the level of corruption in the coffee export industry is wanting. this begs one question… where are the derivates experts in the NSE and what are they doing about this opportunity of favorable weather and prices.

The list of the forex companies that were closed was released last month after the alshabaab attack in Garissa. This has caused a shortage of the amount of dollars in circulation. The CBK with its acting governor seems to be sleeping on job as Mobile money policies are still laging behind hindering other mobile money startups to get certified. The future seems narrow for non safaricom players in the mobile money transfer business.

Come to think of this rumour, I had some 100 dollars the other day… maybe just maybe… I should have waited for this windfall too. Raila keep up the good job with your Okoa Kenya campaign.

By Neville Mugambi


How to Give the ‘Devil’ (his) Dues

Creativity is supposed to pay—in fact not just pay for the sake of paying—but do so handsomely; and for long. However, in most cases, it happens that the dues don’t come in. This can easily be traced to the controversial crimes of piracy and plagiarism.

And though there have since been entities and laws that protect the interests of the creatives, most such do the job with rather exploitative strings attached—with exploitative interests at heart.

But MYDEWS is quite different: it is a platform developed with the creative’s maximum interests at heart, not the owners’.

Once registered, the creative stands to start earning from any consumer in any part of the world, anytime, any day.

Developed by Elton Maiyo and his partner Kigen Tembu, MYDEWS, properly put, is a system that places the creative individual at the best possible position to enjoy the fruits of their intellectual labors, possibly without much labor on the part of the creative who only needs to sign up, create excellently and just wait to earn as much as the consumer is willing to give.

Hence to appreciate the creative, the giver, once on, can search for the creative of choice, and then accomplish a simple and efficient money transfer process currently via Paypal and M-Pesa.

Besides, the giver has a leeway to donate to an initially unregistered creative: they just have to register the creative themselves and start giving, as much as they can or want.

Meanwhile, MYDEWS is a brand new startup currently incubated at C4DLab and founded by one Elton Maiyo and his team who also co-own an excellent digital place-and-person location system going by the name Geoaddress.


The Devolution Fallacy Explicated

Disclaimer: the following argument may not be what you expected, but approaching it with an open mind will benefit you. It does not subscribe to any political view or harbour any prejudice whatsoever. Philosophers and any other high-mined individuals are highly welcome to experience an unconventional, high-voltage but highly plausible thinking. I am talking about deconstruction. Here we go.

Devolution, the most current ‘system’ of government here in Kenya, simply does not ‘work’, in at least two ways. These two ways (at least), as we shall soon see, are downright fallacious ways of talking about the concept that is devolution.

We begin the endeavor by demonstrating that to say that devolution (and devolution alone) is directly responsible for the many changes (if there are any) is to commit two common fallacies: the first is reification—claiming that an abstract entity works (or does not work). For instance, when one reasons that “the economy has failed to perform”, the invalid assumption is that the economy is an agent/agency. Therefore devolution, also an abstract entity cannot properly be said to be ‘working’.

The other flaw involved in such kind of thinking is false cause. Hence to argue that devolution is the cause of development (under-development) is of course to go off course. Once more devolution is not an agent (like you and me) to cause anything to happen.

Hence—in another way—the reasoning that devolution is doing such and such, since we have successfully established that it cannot cause anything (strictly speaking) the emerging fallacy is the non sequitur (simply put, it means “it does not follow”). Indeed it does not follow to claim that since we have devolution, we have development (there might be; in fact, there are other factors responsible for the development in question, or even deterioration).

Again, the illicit assumption in thinking that our devolution is delivering the promise is that ,”had it not been for devolution, we wouldn’t be seeing such radical changes”. That is the classic case of a hypothesis contrary to fact: it is to reason that there couldn’t be any other way we could have achieved something (which in our case is positive or even negative change). Much more clearly, if one is to reason that “if Marie Curie had not discovered radium from pitchblende (or if Michael Faraday had not discovered benzene from lighting gas) nobody else could, the person would have committed the fallacy of hypothesis contrary to fact.

All the above is at least one way what we call devolution does not work. Way number two is not as complicated as such. The clear picture emerges once we apply just common sense. And so ‘devolution’, as I see it, has not taken yet place (and there’s no need to ensure that it does because nobody can make it take place, happen for that matter). What I seriously mean is that it is humanly impossible to effect devolution.

What has or could be said to have happened is the relocation of certain individuals (especially politicians) to work in certain places they call counties. Is that devolution anymore? Is that act strictly the same as devolution? That is a dubitable, debatable scenario I have just pointed out.

‘Power’ has not been devolved yet either (it cannot even be devolved for the same reasons I have used to refute other entities). The power (if we were to give it the attributes of an agent) has always been where it is. Namely, the President is still the head of State. Those under (him) have always and will always be under (him). There is always a senior person and their juniors. What has changed—in terms of power structure—since the advent of ‘devolution’? Has power really been devolved?

Devolution has not taken place ; what has is the increase (the proliferation even) of government departments and employees, not devolution.

But those saying that devolution is ‘working’, as I said at the initial stages of my polemic ,basically mean that a politician—an agent— has handed them a favor. Those contending that devolution doesn’t work merely mean that a politician —an agent once again—has failed to ‘behave’.

Yet devolution, as we have just seen, cannot be be said to work, or not work. Devolution is ‘unspeakable': of what we cannot speak, we must be silent (Ludwig Wittgenstein). It is even unimplementable— in itself.

day four of the trip to

On the Futility of going Beyond Good and Evil

Kenya is fast becoming a rather mature democracy. Why, for some time now, we as a nation have been deeply engaging in what I would call first class discourse, first rate for that matter. By it I mean abortion, test-tube babies, Vision 2030, techno-cities, homosexuality, contraceptives, GMOs, name it. And, had it not been for other factors, we could have joined the ‘first’ world, but maybe we won’t. Nevertheless the truth is, our national discourse is very high oder.

However still, one thing to note is that no matter how complex or simple our national issues have been, they have always and maybe will always be between good and evil'; right and wrong, moral and immoral. In fact, most world discourse happens to turn on questions of absolute right or wrong. Rarely has it been about the middle ground of things. Possibly it will never be.

Incidentally, as usual, no matter how disparate(different) good and evil are, there have been (in)famous attempts the world over by some to integrate the two or even blur the always apparent distinction. History is replete with such characters: just for instance, Friedrich Nietzsche, a renown German Philosopher was and is famous among many for going ‘beyond good and evil’ both in his thinking and lifestyle. But he went mad as a result of committing what the Holy Bible calls sin. That is, he procured a prostitute who infected him with the then yet incurable syphilis.

Michel Foucault, an eminent French thinker also went beyond good and evil, only to his detriment: he was the first philosopher ever to die of Aids. That is in 1984.

Bertrand Russel, once an accomplished Bristish Philosopher also obliterated the distinction between good and evil. Guess what? He succumbed to the very aberrant ideologies he was advocating. He suffered bans to teach at universities for his excesses. In one notable instance, Russell was barred from teaching in New York Universities for his books, in the judgment of the court, are “lecherous, salacious, libidinous, lustful, venerous, erotomaniac, aphrodisiac, atheistic, irreverent, narrow-minded, untruthful, and bereft of moral fiber”.

What each of those examples serves to show is that it is futile to blur or integrate good and evil. Whenever one ignores the boundary or stretches it, the two forces(good and evil) always act accordingly. That is, they somewhat, if not set the person on the ‘right’ track, conspire to annihilate the person concerned. But apparently, it is usually evil that swings back to slay its promoter : Nietzsche was killed both intellectually and literally by a disease(evil); Foucault was literally killed by AIDS(evil); Russell survived intellectual demise almost brought about by several court bans(evil also).

Hence no one has ever and will never benefit from being an advocate of the devil so to speak. Hence Kenya should be an epitome of Christian conservative morality—as it has always been.

Though we must never suppress intellectual discourse and dialogue around even those issues we might consider clearly ‘un-African’. Perhaps there might be someone somewhere who might be tempted to incline on such unpalatable, immoral or retrogressive practices, but in the process of constructive give-and-take, one such may be helped to see the light.

Yet before I quit, it is worthwhile to pay attention to this interesting development: homosexuals are coming out of their closets to be heard; let the Alshabaab and their sympathizers follow suit. Kenyans are particularly interested in knowing why they do what they do. Let every other deviant and ‘sinner’ in this country come out of their closets. Let us reason together, if only for good to prevail over evil. And to consummate the process, those found to have ‘sinned’ will have to repent before a holy God and mend their ways.

Then we will always have a better country; as it has always been, so should it be.


The Insipid Insipid ‘#ChildrenOfALesserGod’

The NTV programme properly hash-tagged ‘Children of a Lesser God ‘ and incidentally aired on Sunday at 9 in the evening must have been that station’s ‘big story’. This I came to know by how it was highlighted for viewers: other than it being mentioned severally in previous briefs, the gist of the story was first given to us before it was carried forward while other stories were being broadcast, meanwhile.

Later on, after managing to secure most of the viewers’ curiosity and attention, #ChildrenOfALesserGod was re-aired, but this time fully. Claiming to be an exposé of security entities prior to the Garissa University terrorist attack, the documentary featured some families of the departed students explaining what they went through since they experienced the the irreplaceable terrible loss of their loved ones.

Also, at some points int the programme, some security personnel were speaking majorly on some key security breaches and blindspots that apparently facilitated the terror disaster to strike. When all was said and done, the news segment concluded, but of course not immediately and entirely before viewers’ views were sought and sampled for the rest to know the general mood.

Nevertheless, regardless of what anyone thinks or knows, in my my supportable view, the programme was highly unpalatable. A careful analysis will reveal this. In other words, taken apart or de-constructed, the journalistic piece falls apart. It becomes nothing short of sloppy, shoddy work. It is a sham.

To begin with, the title ‘Children of a Lesser God is evidently repugnant, claims a lot, and is out of line. Biased even. The story line, in simple terms doesn’t warrant the apparently blasphemous name. Yet by the way, if I may ask, who or what might be the lesser God? Who is a greater one in reverse? Did the Almighty God suddenly become weak because some people fell victim to terrorist destruction? And before going too far, that is an atheistic title at its best.

Other issues that were apparent and not quite so apparent in the ‘text’ included the wild assumption that the students were attacked because they were poor. The most apt refutation is that calamity knows no bounds, or much more aptly, catastrophé is no respecter of persons.

It is also unacceptable to grossly imply that it is only the less privileged that genuinely feel loss and grief. The rebuttal is, once more, pain is no respecter of persons.

Other warranted claims: nothing was exposed by the ‘investigative story’. The ‘facts’ and even rumours are well in the public domain. What happened or didn’t happen is now common knowledge. Therefore the story is dead. I ‘killed’ it once I ascertained facts and information controverting the assumption that the programme was an exposé (a revelation) of some sort.

Moreover, #ChildrenOfALesserGod reeks of insensitivity to the bereaved. Interviewing them every now and then in the name of ‘follow-ups’ only serves to trigger and fester the memories of the worst that ever befell them. The story obviously did more harm than good. Yet an ethically journalistic practice is to “minimize harm”. Did they? I mean take caution? Apparently, the producers did throw caution to the wind on what would serve quite negligible public good.

In connection with the immediately above contention, I would say that the prime time story did not achieve the ‘greatest happiness’, an ethical journalistic principle. In full, the Greatest Happiness Principle(GHP) calls on journalists to produce works that promote only “the greatest happiness of the greatest number of those affected.” This true for all it is worth.

Eventually, it becomes much more worthwhile to venture that keen Kenyans must have discovered— sooner or later—that there were stories in the bulletin that were more important than #ChildrenOfALesserGod. More ‘newsworthy’ to be exact. Hence it was an unapologetic insult to their intelligence to depict, so to speak, what was not there.

The story in question —in a word—wasted my precious time, ‘wasted’ my attention, and gravely misled me. The producers should have known better than to make such an esteem-wrecking (though lucrative for them) story.


South African Miners during a demonstration some time last year (courtesy

South African Miners during a demonstration some time last year (courtesy

Going by what has been happening in South Africa in most current times, many may be led to believe that xenophobia, popularly known as “the fear of foreigners”, is the root of all evils meted out by some South Africans against outsiders especially of African origin.

In fact most at the moment are feeling that xenophobia is a really deplorable attitude. Whether I agree or disagree is a matter left for you to determine in the analysis that follows.

I will begin by asking the following critical questions: At what point or when is xenophobia a despicable attitude? When it involves and African ‘hating on’/ intensely fearing another African? Or when it involves an African hating on another race? Or when it involves a person hating on another person from another country? Or when it involves a person hating on another person from another community, village, clan, family? Incidentally for no apparent reason or with a reason?

The answer is, whether one is xenophobic with or without a reason, that attitude in human terms is forgivable. But to follow through that fear or hate with violence, interestingly, is what is evil about xenophobia. But fearing alone is not.

Hence from the above example, there are, apparently, ‘good’ xenophobes and bad ones; ‘hard’ and soft ones; high(er) and low degree, and so on.

But a xenophobe is but a xenophobe and violence is not xenophobia. Eventually Xenophobia does not ’cause’ violence. Before I proceed to prove that claim,we need to deconstruct another term often used as an excuse to mistreat others. It is the term ‘foreigner’.

Who is a foreigner? A kenyan versus an unfamiliar Ugandan? A zimbawean Vs a South African? A person Vs another person they are not quite familiar with? Yet if that is true, are you therefore warranted to ‘attack’? No. But most, unfortunately, do that.

In clear terms, being foreign is not the issue. Mistreating a foreigner is. In addition, any reason for misbehaving towards foreigners is questionable.

Hence my refutation of violence in the name of xenophobia properly begins here: First we need to remember that xenophobia is but an active fear of foreigners in their various categories(as we have seen above), whether in low or high degree,

Consequently, I disassociate xenophobia with violence, with murder- evil, because to reason thus is downright fallacious:

“He/she is a foreigner. Therefore, I must hurt him or her.”

“He/she is a foreigner. Therefore I just don’t like him/her.”

Also, “I don’t like him/her because he/she is better than me” strictly does not follow.

Also, “I hate him just because I hate him” is extremely pathetic thinking.

However, to reason that “I hate him/her because they have offended me” is somewhat acceptable. But even then, where is self-control?

Eventually, why some South Africans are committing acts of aggression against those they consider foreigners, the conclusion reached from my analysis is, I know not what. We may recourse to theology next time since pure reason has failed us.


Hon. Uhuru Kenyatta and the first Lady Madam Margaret at the Great Wall of China. Courtesy

Hon. Uhuru Kenyatta and the first Lady Madam Margaret at the Great Wall of China. Courtesy

In constructing a wall between Kenya and Somalia, the Government meant well: to keep all Alshabaab outside Kenya. This, the majority of Kenyans seem to welcome.

However, as I will soon demonstrate, the wall may and maybe will not serve the purpose. We will therefore come to see why we may need no wall in any area of our lives.

Yet before I proceed, with the polemic against walls of whatever kind, we need to know what a ‘wall’ essentially is. A wall is a fortified barrier, put up either for good or bad purpose(s).

In the case of the Kenya Government, the wall is arguably put up for the good of all Kenyans—security. And it appears the wall is one of the most ‘tangible'(solid) security measures ever implemented by a human being.

But, as we have already seen, whether the wall will ‘work’ is another matter altogether. To find out whether the wall between Kenya and Somalia is a worthwhile measure against the touchy issue of insecurity, we will recourse to ‘deconstruction’. That is a radical analysis of the wall and its purposes.

Hence when keenly examined, the wall in question or whatever other ‘wall’ we bring into consideration, defeats the purpose, and it undermines itself to the point of being useless; meaningless in other words.

But I am not saying, that the project has to stall. No. The project has to continue in so far as the people have put their faith in it. Yet whether we have a wall or not, the world, especially Kenya will never be safe(r) in the strict sense of the term.

We must always remember that ‘man’ is ‘his’ own enemy. This means that a person can be his\or her own source of destruction. Also, a person can and is always destroyed by another person. That is true no matter how negligible the damage, the impact, the destruction. Hence no wall between ‘man’ and ‘man’ will ever work. Yet if ever it works, it is mostly to our own detriment. Illustratively, the people on either side of the wall may not survive the alienation, physical or mental or intellectual.

Incidentally, for our own good, we must realize that no war has ever been physical. The fact that we may see people engaged in a physical fight will not falsify my claim at whatever level . In fact the exchange of the fists(for example) is only a demonstration of the real fight—the fight between minds, ideologies, viewpoints , biases, and so on. Hence the only real war that ever takes place is the war of minds. Might doesn’t make right. Alternatively put, two wrongs do not make a right.

And if we have to continue with our argument against wall, it will go like this: the wall will never and has never been known to lock out an enemy since the beginning of humanity. Consult the (in)famous Berlin Wall and many others. When many such barriers were destroyed, and some rendered useless, they served to show all that when a person gets tired of the wall, they must find a way to get around it, or even demolish it, since they were the ones who erected it; in the first place.

Yet again, we may think we have locked out our mortal enemies when in reality we have locked them in. What will happen?

Meanwhile, what is an ‘Alshabaab’? For our own good once more, it could be anyone with a malicious intention. Let us not forget that and not put total faith in a wall— in fact a physical one, no matter how well it may be guarded.

.By Moses Omusolo